2018 China Gum Rosin Trade Conference
Half-day Visit in Nanjing
May 25, 2018 Friday
13：30 Depart from Intercontinental Hotel Nanjing
14：00 Arrive at Porcelain Tower of Nanjing and visit
15：00 Leave for next stop
16：00 Arrive at Niushou Mountain and visit Usnisa Pagoda
18：30 Leave for restaurant
21：00 Back to Hotel
Porcelain Tower of Nanjing
The Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, part of the former Bao'en Temple (Chinese literally: "Temple of Repaid Gratitude"), is a historical site located on the south bank of external Qinhuai River in Nanjing, China. It was a pagoda constructed in the 15th century during the Ming Dynasty, but was mostly destroyed in the 19th century during the course of the Taiping Rebellion. A modern life size replica of it now exists in Nanjing.
In 2010 Wang Jianlin, a Chinese businessman, donated a billion yuan (US$156 million) to the city of Nanjing for its reconstruction. This is reported to be the largest single personal donation ever made in China.In December 2015, the modern replica and surrounding park opened to the public.
The Porcelain Tower of Nanjing was designed during the reign of the Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424), shortly before its construction in the early 15th century. It was first discovered by the Western world when European travelers like Johan Nieuhof visited it, sometimes listing it as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. After this exposure to the outside world, the tower was seen as a national treasure to both locals and other cultures around the world.
In 1801, the tower was struck by lightning and the top four stories were knocked off, but it was soon restored. The 1843 book, The Closing Events of the Campaign in China by Granville Gower Loch, contains a detailed description of the tower as it existed in the early 1840s. In the 1850s, the area surrounding the tower erupted in civil war as the Taiping Rebellion reached Nanjing and the rebels took over the city. They smashed the Buddhist images and destroyed the inner staircase to deny the Qing enemy an observation platform. American sailors reached the city in May 1854 and visited the hollowed tower. In 1856, the Taiping destroyed the tower either in order to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the city or from superstitious fear of its geomantic properties. After this, the tower's remnants were salvaged for use in other buildings, while the site lay dormant until a recent surge to try to rebuild the landmark.
The tower was octagonal with a base of about 97 feet (30 m) in diameter. When it was built, the tower was one of the largest buildings in China, rising up to a height of 260 feet (79 m) with nine stories and a staircase in the middle of the pagoda, which spiraled upwards for 184 steps. The top of the roof was marked by a golden pineapple. There were original plans to add more stories, according to an American missionary who in 1852 visited Nanjing. There are only a few Chinese pagodas that surpass its height, such as the still existent 275-foot-tall (84 m) 11th-century Liaodi Pagoda in Hebei or the no longer existent 330-foot-tall (100 m) 7th-century wooden pagoda of Chang'an.
The tower was built with white porcelain bricks that were said to reflect the sun's rays during the day, and at night as many as 140 lamps were hung from the building to illuminate the tower. Glazes and stoneware were worked into the porcelain and created a mixture of green, yellow, brown and white designs on the sides of the tower, including animals, flowers and landscapes. The tower was also decorated with numerous Buddhist images.
Niushou Mountain is located in Jiangning District of Nanjing. The mountain twin peaks look like ox horns, hence the name. 1700 years ago, the first founder of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, emperor Yuandi, wanted to set up two magnificent gate towers to symbolize imperial power. However, Prime Minister, Wang Dao, considered it inappropriate to do so. One day, when they looked afar at the east and west peak of Niushou Mountain, the Minister suggested that the two peaks were the most suitable heavenly-made gate towers. Hence, the name Tianque Mountain.
The beautiful scenery of Niushou Mountain in spring has been widely known. With profound culture, it is the location for battle against Jin Wuzhu led by Yue Fei and tomb of Zheng He. With abundant Buddhism culture, Niutou Sect of Chinese Zen Buddhism is cultivated and developed here.
Nanjing Niushou Mountain Cultural Tourism Zone is a recent major cultural project of Nanjing. Based on the philosophy of establishing “new heritage of world Buddhism culture, and new sight of modern architecture art”, with the theme of “long–time enshrining of Buddhist holy relic--Usnisa”, the whole tourist attraction takes full advantage of ecological, cultural and tourism resources to create the wonderful scenery for ecology, culture and leisure.
The core of scenic area construction is as follows: fixing the heavenly peaks, meaning restoring mountain massif and recovering twin peaks; building underground palace, meaning making use of the natural pit to build Usnisa Palace for enshrining Usnisa; renovating the sacred road, meaning expanding original tunnel for exhibiting Sakyamuni’s life story and understanding the way to become Buddha; revealing twin pagodas, meaning constructing Usnisa Pagoda and reproducing the grand pattern of twin pagodas; spreading five levels of Chan(Zen Buddhism) and understanding the atmosphere of Chan in rivers and mountains.
Important Sightseeing Tips:
Niushou Mountain is located in subtropical monsoon humid area and belongs to hilly region. Made of igneous rock, it has rich topography and vegetation, therefore, it rains frequently.
The spring rain from April to May presents mist view. The summer rain from June to July makes the plants flourish. The autumn rain from September to October enriches the Buddhism atmosphere here in Niushou Mountain.